2013 hypertension-6

 

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene are associated with essential hypertension and increased ACE enzyme levels in Mexican individuals.

PLoS One. 2013 May 31;8(5):e65700.

Martínez-Rodríguez N, Posadas-Romero C, Villarreal-Molina T, Vallejo M, Del-Valle-Mondragón L, Ramírez-Bello J, Valladares A, Cruz-López M, Vargas-Alarcón G.

Molecular Biology Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez (INCICH), Mexico City, Mexico.

Abstract

AIM:

To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels.

METHODS:

Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5′ exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes.

RESULTS:

Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 0.77, P = 0.023 and OR = 1.41, P = 0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR = 2.0; P = 0.002 and OR = 2.09; P = 0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P = 0.0048).

CONCLUSION:

The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the “GGATG” haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels.

PMID: 23741507

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