Sodium fluorescein-guided resection under the YELLOW 560 nm surgical microscope filter in malignant brain tumor surgery–a feasibility study.

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2013 Apr;155(4):693-9.

Schebesch KM, Proescholdt M, Höhne J, Hohenberger C, Hansen E, Riemenschneider MJ, Ullrich W, Doenitz C, Schlaier J, Lange M, Brawanski A.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss Allee 11, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.



OBJECTIVE: In glioma surgery, the extent of resection (EOR) is one important predictor of progression-free survival. In 2006, fluorescence-guided surgery using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was shown to improve the EOR in malignant gliomas. However, the use of 5-ALA is complex and causes certain side effects. Sodium fluorescein (FL) is a fluorescent dye that is used for angiography in ophthalmic surgery. FL accumulates in areas of the disturbed blood-brain barrier and can be visualized under a 560-nm wavelength fluorescent light source (YELLOW 560 nm, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany). Here, we present the first experiences with low-dose FL and YELLOW 560 nm in 35 patients with malignant brain tumors.

PATIENTS AND METHOD: A total of 200 mg of FL (3-4 mg/kg bodyweight) was administered in 35 patients during craniotomy as an off-label use between May and August 2012. We retrospectively analyzed the histology, pre-treatment, clinical parameters pre- and postoperatively and occurrence of any adverse effects. The feasibility and efficacy (‘helpful,’ ‘not helpful’) of FL under YELLOW 560 nm (demarcation of the tumor margin) was assessed by the responsible neurosurgeon (n = 5) for each surgical procedure.

RESULTS: Twenty-six patients had gliomas (1 WHO grade I, 3 WHO grade II, 5 WHO grade III, 17 WHO grade IV), 5 patients had cerebral metastases, 2 had non-malignant astrogliosis and 2 had post-radiation necrosis. The fluorescence signal was detected in all patients immediately after the FL administration. FL application was classified as ‘helpful’ in 28 patients, implying improved visualization of the tumor margins. The intensity of the fluorescence signal seemed to be correlated to the histology and was strongly dependent on the pre-treatment status. We did not record any allergic reactions or any other adverse effects.

CONCLUSION: The use of FL for the resection of brain tumors is safe and feasible. Presumably, the visualization of the tumor margin depends on the histopathology and on the pre-treatment status. A randomized evaluation of FL under the YELLOW 560 nm filter is planned to prospectively analyze the extent of resection in patients with malignant brain tumors.

PMID: 23430234

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