Int J Oncol. 2013 Jun;42(6):1919-28.

Cigarette smoke induces nuclear translocation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in prostate cancer cells: nuclear HO-1 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion.

Birrane G, Li H, Yang S, Tachado SD, Seng S.

Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

 

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of male-cancer related death in the United States. Despite a number of evidence-based studies which strongly suggest an association between cigarette smoking and prostate cancer, the underlying biological mechanism is largely unknown. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) has been implicated in maintaining cellular homeostasis, but also in tumor angiogenesis. Nuclear HO-1 protein expression has been observed in various types of tumors including prostate cancer. These studies, however, were reported as clinical and pathological observations, and failed to investigate nuclear HO-1 at the molecular level in cancer. The present study explores the relationship between cigarette smoke and nuclear HO-1-modulated promotion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. We have demonstrated that cigarette smoke medium (SM)-induced HO-1 mRNA expression and upregulated HO-1 protein levels in the prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3. We also observed that SM significantly induced nuclear expression of HO-1, and enhanced secretion of VEGF in cells. Nuclear-directed expression of HO-1 activated the transcriptional activity of VEGF and promoted VEGF secretion in prostate cancer cells. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism by which cigarette smoke-induced nuclear translocation of HO-1 promotes VEGF secretion in prostate cancer cells. Nuclear HO-1 may, therefore, constitute an attractive therapeutic target to inhibit angiogenesis and the progression of prostate cancer.

PMID: 23591596

 

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