Diabetes 2013 July-4


Frequency of Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant diabetics at Baskent University Hospital, Istanbul

Pak J Med Sci.2013 Jan-Mar;29(1):15-20.

Hulya Parildar, Asli Dogruk Unal, Guldeniz Aksan Desteli, Ozlem Cigerli, Nilgun Guvener Demirag


Objective: To find out the frequency of vitamin D deficiency and its relation with glucose parameters and the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM).

Methodology: Gestational diabetes was diagnosed with 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Forty-four pregnant women diagnosed with GDM and 78 non-GDM pregnant women were enrolled as case and control group, respectively in this descriptive study. Vitamin D status was classified as deficiency at ≤20 ng/ml for serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

Results: The mean ages were 33.4±5.2 (18-44) years and 29.7±4.1 (21-39) years, mean BMI was 30.6±5.9 kg/m² (19.5-46.1) and 25.9±4.4 kg/m2 (16.5-38) in case and control groups, respectively. The frequency of GDM was found 9.38%. The mean serum vitamin D levels in GDM group were significantly lower than in non-GDM subjects (p=0.07). A total of 56.8% of GDM patients were compared with 35.8% of control group which had Vitamin D deficiency and the difference was significant (p= 0.02). There was no significant association between vitamin D levels and fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c. Vitamin D levels were inversely correlated with clothing style, parathyroid hormone levels, dental problems and muscle cramps.

Conclusions: The association of maternal Vitamin D status with the markers of glucose metabolism in pregnancy needs prospective studies.

Link: http://pjms.com.pk/index.php/pjms/article/view/2896



Our study provides data indicating that maternal vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among pregnant population. However we did not find significant association of low levels of serum 25 (OH) D with elevated risk for GDM even after adjustment for conventional risk factors for diabetes. Although there is no consensus for routine vitamin D screening in pregnancy, being alert about this deficiency and its symptoms and optimising when necessary by replacement and/or through taking lifestyle measures may be recommended. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal levels and doses of vitamin D in pregnancy to reduce the health risks for both mother and fetus. Investigating and diagnosing the factors that may negatively affect the development of gestational diabetes and the future life of fetus/child is very important.


Hulya Parildar was lead author in this study and thanks his co-authors Professor dr Nilgun Guvener Demirag Dr Guldeniz Aksan Desteli, Dr Ozlem Cigerli and Dr Asli Dogruk Unal.  She is attending family physician at  the University of Baskent, Istanbul Hospital and can be contacted via email at hulyaparildar@gmail.com


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