An Acad Bras Cienc. 2013 Mar;85(1):355-63.

Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. 

OZANILDO V. NASCIMENTO1, ANA PAULA DE A. BOLETI2, LUCIA K.O. YUYAMA3 and EMERSON S. LIMA2

1 Faculdade de Educação Física e Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

2 Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

3 Coordenação de Pesquisas em Ciências da Saúde, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil.


ABSTRACT

Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/ day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG) and a non treated group (CG). After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

PMID: 23460435

 

Supplement:

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a serious public health problem worldwide [1]. Excess fat, in particular, the distribution of visceral fat has been linked to a group of risk factors for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and whose presence confers a higher risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 [2].Obesity occurs when there is an imbalance between energy intake, principally stored as triglycerides (food consumption), and energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate and biochemical processes). When adipose tissue function is compromised during obesity, the excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, liver, and other organs predisposes the individual to the development of metabolic changes that increase overall morbidity risks.

In the Amazon, there are numerous plant species with economic and health potential, among which the Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh) stands out, a Myrtaceae, plant growing on the banks of rivers and lakes of the Amazon. Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Fig. 1) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins [3,4]. In recent studies, our laboratory showed the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity [5].

The effects of the supplementation of Camu-camu pulp (Fig. 2) in obese rats were realized during four week of treatment. The rats were divided into two groups with eight animals each, with equivalent weights. The first group was a non treated group (CG). The second was the experimental group that used the Camu-camu in diet (CCG), each animal received 25 mL of pulp juice Camu-camu fresh individually, daily for 12 weeks. Both groups received water and commercial chow ad libitum (in pads) of Labina (São Paulo, Brazil).

The supplementation with Camu-camu pulp showed reduced body weight in the CCG group (31.7%) when compared with [del] CG. A reduction in the weight of visceral tissue (36.4%) and epidimimal tissue (24%) in the CCG group also was observed, while in the CG group the weights of this tissue increased, 14.3% and 20.2%, respectively. An increased was also observed in the feces (50%) and liver (140%) in CCG group in comparing the CG group.

The treatment of obese rat with Camu-camu pulp also reduced cholesterol (39.6%) and triglycerides (40.6%), in comparing with increase observed of cholesterol and triglycerides in the CG group, 60% and 44%, respectively. LDL (2.14%) and VLDL (36.4%) also were reduced in obese rats treated with Camu-camu pulp, when compared with increase observed in the CG group, 118% and 14.3%, respectively. Glucose also was reduced in obese rats (23%), while an increase of 19.4% was observed in control group intake with chow ad libitum. Biochemical analysis showed an increase in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP, 37.1%, 104% and10.7%, respectively. A reduction of 44.5 % in the insulin activities was observed, as well as a reduction in the levels of TNF-α (12.7%) in obese rats treated with Camu-camu pulp.

This investigation can conclude that the pulp of Camu-camu slices have nutrients that may explain the observed effects in our experiments, which collaborated with the reductions in body weight and epididymal and visceral fat of reducing some markers of lipid metabolism, reducing fat deposited in the feces, heart and liver, in addition to decrease the inflammatory proteins.

 

References

[1] Radhika G, Ganesan A, Sathya RM 2009. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 63: 413-420.

[2] Houston MC, Fazio S, Chilton FHN 2009.  Nonpharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis.  52(2):61-72.

[3] Yuyama K, Aguiar JPL And Yuyama, LKO 2002. Camu-camu: um fruto fantástico como fonte de vitamina c. Acta Amaz 32: 169-174.

[4] Zanatta CF, Cuevas E, Bobbio FO, Winterhalter P and Mercadante AZ 2005. Determination of Anthocyanins from Camu-camu (Myrciariadubia) by HPLC − PDA, HPLC− MS, and NMR. J Agric Food Chem 53: 9531-9535.

[5] Nascimento OV, Boleti APA, YUYAMA LKO and Lima, ES 2013. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubiaHBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 85 (1): 355-363.

Acknowledgments

The authors recognize support provided by Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of Amazonas (FAPEAM) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). E.S.L. is members of the INCT de Processos Redox em Biomedicina-Redoxoma (MCT/CNPq). A.P.A.B is a researcher from the Programa de Desenvolvimento Científico Regional (DCR-CNPq/FAPEAM). AcademicEnglishSolutions.com revised the English.

 

Contact:

Prof. Dr. Emerson Silva Lima

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Rua Alexandre Amorin, 330 – Aparecida, Manaus-AM/Brazil,CEP: 69010-300 Tel/Fax: (055) 92 3305.5000. E-mail: eslima@ufam.edu.br

Emerson Silva Lima-fig1

Figure 1: Camu-camu Fruit

Emerson Silva Lima-fig2

Figure 2: Camu-camu Juice

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