Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: the role of hypertension intervention.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Apr 15;268(2):232-40.

Kodavanti UP, Thomas RF, Ledbetter AD, Schladweiler MC, Bass V, Krantz QT, King C, Nyska A, Richards JE, Andrews D, Gilmour MI.

Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov

Abstract

Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or l-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500μg/m(3)), 4h/day for 2days or 5days/week for 4weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while l-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by l-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers.

PMID: 23415681

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