Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015;11(8):1936-44.

A microarray MEMS device for biolistic delivery of vaccine and drug powders.


Pirmoradi FN, Pattekar AV, Linn F, Recht MI, Volkel AR, Wang Q, Anderson GB, Veiseh M, Kjono S, Peeters E, Uhland SA, Chow EM.

Palo Alto Research Center Inc., (PARC) ; Palo Alto , CA USA.



We report a biolistic technology platform for physical delivery of particle formulations of drugs or vaccines using parallel arrays of microchannels, which generate highly collimated jets of particles with high spatial resolution. Our approach allows for effective delivery of therapeutics sequentially or concurrently (in mixture) at a specified target location or treatment area. We show this new platform enables the delivery of a broad range of particles with various densities and sizes into both in vitro and ex vivo skin models. Penetration depths of ∼1 mm have been achieved following a single ejection of 200 µg high-density gold particles, as well as 13.6 µg low-density polystyrene-based particles into gelatin-based skin simulants at 70 psi inlet gas pressure. Ejection of multiple shots at one treatment site enabled deeper penetration of ∼3 mm in vitro, and delivery of a higher dose of 1 mg gold particles at similar inlet gas pressure. We demonstrate that particle penetration depths can be optimized in vitro by adjusting the inlet pressure of the carrier gas, and dosing is controlled by drug reservoirs that hold precise quantities of the payload, which can be ejected continuously or in pulses. Future investigations include comparison between continuous versus pulsatile payload deliveries. We have successfully delivered plasmid DNA (pDNA)-coated gold particles (1.15 µm diameter) into ex vivo murine and porcine skin at low inlet pressures of ∼30 psi. Integrity analysis of these pDNA-coated gold particles confirmed the preservation of full-length pDNA after each particle preparation and jetting procedures. This technology platform provides distinct capabilities to effectively deliver a broad range of particle formulations into skin with specially designed high-speed microarray ejector nozzles.


APC, Antigen Presenting Cells; CFD, Computational Fluid Dynamics; MEMS, MicroElectroMechanical System; biolistic; epidermal delivery; gene gun; injection microarrays; intracellular delivery; intradermal delivery; needle-free vaccine injection; pDNA, Plasmid DNA; particle collimation; particle ejection; transdermal drug delivery

PMID: 26090875








Multiselect Ultimate Query Plugin by InoPlugs Web Design Vienna | Webdesign Wien and Juwelier SchönmannMultiselect Ultimate Query Plugin by InoPlugs Web Design Vienna | Webdesign Wien and Juwelier Schönmann