Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10(6):1747-51.

The dichotomy (generation of MAbs with functional heterogeneity) in antimalarial immune response in vaccinated/protected mice: a new concept in our understanding of the protective immune mechanisms in malaria.

Singh PP, Prakash B.

Centre of Infectious Diseases; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research; S.A.S. Nagar, India.



Globally, vaccines have emerged as one of the most effective, safe, and cost-effective public health interventions, and are known to save 2-3 million lives, annually. However, despite various commendable efforts, a suitable human malaria vaccine is yet to see the light of the day. The lack of our complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and immune protection in malaria appears to be responsible for this state. Earlier, our laboratory has reported that Swiss mice vaccinated with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-total parasite antigens soluble in culture medium and saponin, following a 100% lethal challenge, showed 60% protection. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated from the splenocytes of these vaccinated/protected mice, following characterization by in vitro merozoite invasion inhibition assay, ex vivo macrophage phagocytosis assay, and in vivo passive transfer of protection test, belonged to 2 distinct groups-a larger group of MAbs inhibited<58% Mz invasion and transferred 30% passive protection, whereas a smaller group of MAbs inhibited 86% Mz invasion and transferred 60% passive protection. Additionally, the MAbs of the smaller group, as compared with the larger one, mediated nearly 2.4-fold enhanced macrophage phagocytosis of infected-erythrocytes, in vitro. These results thus clearly showed a dichotomy among the generated MAbs. An exploration of the phenomenon of dichotomy in protective immunity in malaria by using various hosts and malaria parasite combinations, especially at the level of antibodies, cells, and cytokines, may add new insights to our understanding of the protective immunity, and help in the identification of biomarkers/biosignatures of immune protection and development of future human malaria vaccines.

KEYWORDS: Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis; dichotomy; immunity; malaria; monoclonal antibodies

PMID: 24632591


Prof. (Dr.) Prati Pal SinghProf. Prati Pal Singh, Ph.D., F. N. A. Sc., F.A.M.I.
Associate Dean (Academic Affairs)
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
In-charge, Center for Infectious Diseases
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
(DoP, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizer, Govt. of India)
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