Roquefort cheese proteins inhibit Chlamydia pneumoniae propagation and LPS-induced leukocyte migration.

ScientificWorldJournal. 2013 Apr 28; 2013:140591. doi: 10.1155/2013/140591. Print 2013.

Petyaev IMZigangirova NAKobets NVTsibezov VKapotina LNFedina EDBashmakov YK.

Lycotec Ltd. Granta Park Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russian Federation.

 

ABSTRACT

Dietary factors and certain infectious pathogens, including C. pneumoniae, constitute two of the most important groups of variables predetermining the initiation, progression and outcomes of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In the present paper we report that proteins isolated from Roquefort cheese by size-exclusion chromatography using a Sephadex G-25 column inhibit the propagation of C. pneumoniae in a human HL cell line in a dose-dependent manner, as revealed by immunofluorescence analysis. These results were accompanied by a significant reduction in the formation of infective progeny which was also observed to be dose-dependent over a Roquefort protein extract range of 0.12-0.5 µg/ml. Moreover, short term feeding of mice with Roquefort cheese (two times, 10 mg per mouse with an interval of 24 hours) led to a significant reduction in the migratory response of peritoneal leukocytes following intraperitoneal injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in neutrophil count and a relative increase in peritoneal macrophage count, suggesting that the feeding of Roquefort promotes regenerative processes at the site of inflammation. It is intriguing to suggest that the anti-chlamydial effect as well as the effects of Roquefort cheese on mechanisms of innate immunity may affect the progression and outcomes of pathophysiological mechanisms predisposing to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

PMID: 23737705

 

Supplement:

Reduced cardiovascular mortality in Southern France and other parts of the Mediterranean region, known as the “French paradox”, requires thorough investigation. It is widely assumed that some constituents of red wine (resveratrol and other polyphenols) are at least partially responsible for the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in Southern France.  However, a possible contribution of some other dietary and non-dietary factors should also be considered.

We hypothesize, that a consumption of blue-veined and other fungal fermented cheeses, which are a trademark of French culinary culture, may have some measurable positive impact on the physiological mechanisms underlying the resistance of the human body to cardiovascular disease.

As it has turned out this assumption could well be right. In our in vitro experiments a protein extract, isolated from Roquefort cheese and further purified by a size exclusion chromatography, was able to inhibit significantly the infectious cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae in HL cells, a bacterial pathogen presumably implicated in the initiation, progression and outcomes of cardiovascular disease. Immunofluorescent analysis showed that besides dose-dependent inhibition of the intracellular growth of C. pneumoniae in each individual infected cell, there was a clear and significant effect on the rate of the invective progeny formation in cell monolayers revealing an anti-bacterial effect of the Roquefort cheese protein extract.

                               Dose-dependent Inhibition of C. pneumoniae growth in HL cells

Ivan Petyaev-3                                          Control                                  100 ng/ml                    300 ng/ml of Roquefort protein extract

Next we decided to evaluate if short term Roquefort cheese consumption could have any impact on inflammatory response formed in vivo conditions. We found that mice fed with Roquefort cheese had a significant reduction in the migratory response of peritoneal leukocytes following intraperitoneal challenge with E. coli lipopolysaccharide. Moreover there was a reduction in neutrophil count and a relative increase in peritoneal macrophage count, suggesting altogether that Roquefort cheese has measurable anti-inflammatory potential.

The importance of the research project is three-fold. First of all we show that Roquefort cheese as an ingredient of the Mediterranean and French diets has previously unknown medical benefits such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore its consumption and other moulded cheeses may potentially contribute to reduced cardiovascular mortality in their consumers. Secondly, although we were not able to identify any specific substances mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activity of Roquefort cheese, our experiments suggest that this cheese contains some highly active biological compounds whose identification and further isolation may lead to the development of new drugs and/or nutritional supplements useful for clinical practice. Thirdly, our results create a motivational basis for further epidemiological research linking the consumption of Roquefort and other moulded cheeses  with various aspects of human health.

Contact:   Ivan Petyaev-2

Ivan M Petyaev MD, PhD

CEO Lycotec Ltd

Granta Park, Cambridge, United Kingdom

petyaev@aol.com

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