Methods. 2013 May 1;60(3):226-31.

Nanovaccines and their mode of action.

Zaman M, Good MF, Toth I.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences (SCMB), The University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia. m.zaman@uq.edu.au

Abstract

Nanosized particles including nanovaccines are a novel approach to the development of vaccines to combat diseases. Nanovaccines have the promise to utilize the immune system to cure infections and to prevent infections and diseases from spreading. Rational vaccine development requires an understanding of vaccine mediated stimulation of the immune system. We review here immunostimulatory properties of nanovaccines including their immunogenicity, adjuvant properties, inflammatory responses and the mechanisms of uptake and stimulation of immune cells. Examples of various nanoparticles currently being developed as vaccines are also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

PMID: 23623821

Supplementary

This review briefly describes the use of nanotechnology in the design and development of novel nanovaccines. Examples of the most known nanosized particles (such as liposomes, dendrimers, metallic nanobeads), and their applications in therapeutic and protective immunization are described. Here, we focused on the mechanism of action of these nanosized particles for inducing immune cells, adjuvant properties, inflammatory responses and the mechanisms of uptake and stimulation of immune cells. Most if not all nanovaccines primarily involve the uptake and stimulation of antigen presenting cells to induce a pro-inflammatory response (Figure 1). Whilst more understanding is required of the actual processing and presentation of nanovaccines by immune cells, what is known is that they can be utilized to induce the desired cellular or humoral immunity.

Use of nanoechnology in the development of nanovaccines is in its infancy, with the potential to change medical research dramatically.  Targeting of cancerous cells, vaccine delivery and enhancing immune cell interaction are just some the potential for nanoparticles. More knowledge of function of nanoparticles and their interaction with immune cells will provide opportunities to develop novel nano-sized materials to cure and prevent diseases. However, some issues need to be considered, mainly related to the biocompatibility of nanosized particles. With the enormous potential to have a positive impact on human health, nanovaccines are a promising strategy in medical research.

nanovac

Figure 1: Mechanism of action of nanovaccines.

 

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