J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2015 Sep;57(2):151-5.
Association between plasma sLOX-1 concentration and arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older individuals.
- 1Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Ryutsu Keizai University, 120 Ryugasaki, Ibaraki 301-8555, Japan.
- 2Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan.
- 3Biomarker Science Co., Ltd., 103-5 Tanaka Monzen-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8225, Japan.
- 4Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.
- 5Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is implicated in vascular endothelial function. Vascular endothelial function is a potent regulator of arterial stiffness, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether LOX-1 is associated with arterial stiffness. Plasma concentrations of soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, an index of arterial stiffness) were measured in 143 individuals between 51 and 83 years of age. Plasma sLOX-1 concentration was correlated with baPWV (r = 0.288, p = 0.0005). In stepwise regression analysis, plasma sLOX-1 concentration was associated with baPWV, after adjusting for age; body mass index; blood pressure; heart rate; blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin; sex; and use of antihypertensives, lipid-lowering agents, and other medications (R (2) = 0.575, p<0.0001). Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that plasma sLOX-1 concentration was independently associated with elevated baPWV (≥14.0 m/s; odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.03; p = 0.03). These results suggest that LOX-1 is associated with arterial stiffness.
KEYWORDS: age; arterial stiffness; lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1; pulse wave velocity
Arteries close to the heart, such as the aorta and carotid arteries, are called central arteries. They have elastic properties like a rubber band. The elastic arteries act as a cushion and prevent blood pressure elevation. However, as time goes by, it loses flexibility. A bad artery like an old rubber band cannot prevent blood pressure elevation. The increase in blood pressure injures vessels in the brain and heart and causes cardiovascular disease. The opposite word of elasticity is stiffness. A decrease in arterial elasticity means an increase in arterial stiffness. Improvement of arterial stiffness is crucial to prevent cardiovascular disease. This study demonstrated that higher concentrations of plasma soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) are associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. Lifestyle modifications to reduce oxidative damage may be beneficial to prevent an increase in arterial stiffness. We have previously reported that multicomponent dietary supplement, which contains various nutrients including antioxidants, decreased arterial stiffness (5, 6).
Other potential strategies to prevent arterial stiffening are aerobic exercise training and an increase in level of daily physical activity, although effects of exercise training on LOX-1 have been elucidated. The figure is a typical example of a reduction in arterial stiffness by aerobic exercise training. A woman participated in our 6-week walking class. Her arterial stiffness decreased after the walking class, whereas arterial stiffness did not change in her sedentary counterpart. In accordance, cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that individuals with exercise habit have lower arterial stiffness compared to sedentary peers (1—6).
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- Otsuki T, Maeda S, Iemitsu M, et al. Relationship between arterial stiffness and athletic training programs in young adult men. Am J Hypertens 20: 967-73, 2007
- Otsuki T, Maeda S, Iemitsu M, et al. Vascular endothelium-derived factors and arterial stiffness in strength- and endurance-trained men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292: H786-791, 2007
- Otsuki T, Ohashi C. Participation in physical activity and arterial stiffness in males with autism spectrum disorder. Artery Res 8: 110-114, 2014
- Otsuki T, Shimizu K, Iemitsu M, Kono I. Multicomponent supplement containing Chlorella decreases arterial stiffness in healthy young men. J Clin Biochem Nutr 53: 166-9, 2013
- Otsuki T, Shimizu K, Maeda S. Changes in arterial stiffness and nitric oxide production with Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation in middle-aged and older individuals. J Clin Biochem Nutr 57: 228-32, 2015