Obesity, insulin resistance and diabete
BCAAs in muscle tissue
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) possess a branched aliphatic side chain in their structure. This group of amino acids includes leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are not only components of proteins, but also regulate many physiological processes in the human body . BCAAs are mainly found in muscle tissue, constituting 14–18% of all amino acids that build the proteins of this tissue.
They belong to the group of exogenous amino acids that must be supplied to the body through the diet . BCAAs are present in raw materials and food products containing both vegetable and animal proteins. The main food sources with the highest BCAA contents are meat, fish, grains, dairy products, vegetables, and eggs [2,3]. Nevertheless, some reports suggest that a small number of these amino acids can also be synthesized by the gut microbiome [4,5]. In addition to the well-known role of BCAAs in the metabolism of muscle proteins, there has been an increasing interest in the role of BCAAs in cardiometabolic diseases, especially in the context of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes.
It has been found that elevated levels of circulating BCAAs correlate with obesity, and an increased risk of insulin resistance (IR), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in both human and animal models